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  • arc melting
  • induction melting
  • annealing in controlled atmosphere
  • melt spinning
  • ball milling/mechanical alloying
  • hot-pressing, die upsetting and backward extrusion (net-shaped ring magnets)
  • hydriding, nitriding

Microstructural Characterisation

  • high resolution, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (incl. EBSD and EDX)
  • aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy (incl. EDX and EELS)
  • X-ray diffraction incl. Rietveld refinement


  • PPMS incl. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (2-1000K, 14 Tesla)
  • Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (2-700K, 9 Tesla)
  • SQUID Magnetometer incl. pressure cell (2-350K, 7 T)
  • Permeameter (up to 200°C, 2 T)

Magnetic Microstructure

  • time-, field-, temperature-dependent Kerr microscopy
  • MFM

Thermal Properties

  • various DTA, DSC and TGA apparatuses (e.g. Netzsch DSC 150 bar hydrogen)
  • Setaram DSC-TGA-MS (400bar, 800°C)